Semănătorul (The Sower)
The Journal of Ministry and Biblical Research
Emanuel University of Oradea, Romania
Volume 4, Number 1.
Articles published by the Faculty of Theology in Emanuel
University of Oradea, and International Contributors,
When an organization produces and issues its code of ethics, often specific to the needs of that particular organization or institution, it frequently contains a brief introduction from the Chief Executive, Chairman or within the military, a Service Chief. This is a top-down exercise. Very good reasons why this should be so can be easily imagined. In some instances, the “brand” of the organization will be inextricably linked with the professional behavior of its people. In others, the conduct of its personnel outside of the workplace might affect public perception of the “brand.” It is difficult to see how it could be possible to produce an organization ethic without the explicit endorsement by the senior management of any organization or institution. This article will maintain that there may, however, be a serious problem with a “top-down” approach in the 21st century. Frequently, there are two implied assumptions in these policies: firstly, that personnel within an organization/ institution will understand the ethical language used; secondly, that the shared, societal frameworks necessary for ethical concepts to be understood are known, recognized and accepted. This article challenges the validity of these assumptions. It contends that ethical language has become fragmented, and that an organizational ethic must begin from the ground up by beginning with first principles. The genesis of creating an organizational ethic from the ground up comes from the work the author did as the British Army’s lead on ethics.
KEY WORDS: postmodern, individual, ethics, organization, rights
The role of the Holy Spirit in Mission is twofold: centripetal and centrifugal. The centripetal role reflects the attractive force that the Holy Spirit performs by bringing people into the Kingdom, while the centrifugal force reflects the outward move in which the Holy Spirit empowers the believers to expand the Kingdom of God by taking the Gospel to all men. The Great Commission is simultaneously a call to mission in the sense of fulfilling the centrifugal mandate of bringing Christ to non-believers, and a centripetal mandate of drawing non-believers to Christ. This paper exegetes some key passages in order to highlight this twofold theological and missional aspect.
KEY WORDS: The Great Commission, Kingdom of God, Centripetal and Centrifugal, missio Dei.
This article will focus upon the concept of godliness in the Pastoral Epistles. The actual term eusebeia, “godliness,” is used ten times in the Letters, (1 Timothy 2:2; 3:16; 4:7, 8; 6:3, 5, 6, 11; 2 Timothy 3:5; Titus 1:1) Beyond these Epistles the word occurs only once in Acts 3:12 and four times in 2 Peter 1:3, 6, 7; 3:11. Related words, as the adjective eusebēs “devout” or “godly,” the adverb eusebōs “godly” and the verb eusebein “to worship” or “show godliness” are also found. Wherever these words occur there appears to be no significant difference in meaning. This article will seek to explore the concept eusebeia, noting how it was used in the Greco-Roman society and the Hellenistic Jewish community. Considering the main texts where the term occurs in the Pastoral Epistles, we will examine how Paul has then adapted this concept to define for Timothy and Titus the Christian’s new existence in Christ, based on his mission, an existence reflecting devotion to God and the consequent manner of life which follows, whether one is in leadership or otherwise.
KEY WORDS: The Greco-Roman environment, the Christ-event, ungodliness, the scope of the believer’s intercession, leadership and witness in Ephesus and Crete.
It is well known that the letter of 1 Corinthians is peculiar in the sense that it deals with several issues in the Corinthian church, apparently unrelated to each other, except that all the problems were found in the same church. While the purpose for which Paul wrote the letter was that of creating unity, the way he seeks to motivate towards unity is by calling for self-sacrifice, restraining one’s liberty, giving up one’s rights, ultimately by calling the believers to love. This becomes clear by noting the structure of Paul’s argument in dealing with each individual issue in the letter. The sandwich (ABA’) structure reveals that at the heart of each of Paul’s arguments is a call to self-sacrifice. This is strengthened by noting that Paul begins and ends his epistle with the two most significant redemptive events—the cross and the resurrection.
KEY WORDS: Corinthians, sandwich structure, ABA’ structure, love, gospel, cross, unity, theme
S. D. ELLISON
This article explores the shape of kingship in ancient Israel with reference to the Pentateuch and particularly Deuteronomy 17:14–20. It demonstrates that Israel’s kingship is distinctive from that of the surrounding nations. The distinctive nature is linked, in the first place, to the creation of the nation and, secondly, to the stipulations for kings contained in Deuteronomy 17. It concludes that although there is some similarity between kingship in Israel and the surrounding nations, at root kingship in Israel is fundamentally distinctive. Whereas in the ancient Near East the king was god, in Israel God was king.
KEY WORDS: Kingship; Deuteronomy; Israel; Pentateuch; Ancient Near East.
Why do the righteous suffer? The present research aims to examine the answer to this question as it emerges from the spectrum of dialogues in the narrative of the Book of Job. We will examine the dialogues that stand out in its literary perimeter, then, in the end, we will highlight the reason to which Job, the protagonist of the story, gets access to regarding his own suffering. Afterwards, we will probe a number of classical and modern interpretations in order to highlight the fact that the rhetoric of suffering in the Book of Job, like the classical interpretations, points to a high view of God’s power and knowledge and a human attitude of resilience and humility in the face of suffering, whereas the modern interpretations examined tend to highlight a low view of God’s power and knowledge and a critical and accusing human attitude.
KEY WORDS: suffering, book of Job, interpretation, rhetoric, classical, modern.
In the following article we will analyze the episode of the call of Abraham as it was imagined by the authors of the Genesis Rabbah 39. We will deal with the various aspects of literary devices and structure, and then we will look at the theological worldview that emerges out of Genesis Rabbah. The literary genre of Midrashic Literature employs a number of devices which set this type of literature apart from the others. The formula lech lecha (go yourself) functions as the key expression in Genesis Rabbah 39. We will also ask questions about the historical and social background that may have influenced the rabbis in their exposition of the life of Abraham. We will notice that the world in which Abraham lived resembled a palace that was set on fire, an allusion to the world that God created and that, apparently, seems at the mercy of wickedness and evil. It was this context in which God called Abraham, a righteous man whom God spoke to, and used more than any other people of his generations.
KEY WORDS: Abraham, Genesis, Midrash, Rabbinic Literature